Dating methods geology
As astonishing and counterintuitive as it may seem to some, genetic algorithms have proven to be an enormously powerful and successful problem-solving strategy, dramatically demonstrating the power of evolutionary principles.Genetic algorithms have been used in a wide variety of fields to evolve solutions to problems as difficult as or more difficult than those faced by human designers.But in the last few decades, the continuing advance of modern technology has brought about something new.Evolution is now producing practical benefits in a very different field, and this time, the creationists cannot claim that their explanation fits the facts just as well.
(See the section on Methods of change for more detail about the genetic operators.) Another strategy, developed principally by John Koza of Stanford University and called , represents programs as branching data structures called trees (Koza et al. Figure 1: Three simple program trees of the kind normally used in genetic programming.
For example, creationists often explain the development of resistance to antibiotic agents in bacteria, or the changes wrought in domesticated animals by artificial selection, by presuming that God decided to create organisms in fixed groups, called "kinds" or .
Though natural microevolution or human-guided artificial selection can bring about different varieties within the originally created "dog-kind," or "cow-kind," or "bacteria-kind" (!
These promising candidates are kept and allowed to reproduce.
Multiple copies are made of them, but the copies are not perfect; random changes are introduced during the copying process.